People who could afford it sent their boys to be educated at the temple school, called the House of Life. Those who could not taught their boys at home. Girls were taught at home. Some were taught to read and write, as well as how to manage a home.
The children followed in their parentís footsteps. If your father was a baker, so were you, unless you were accepted as a scribe. The profession of scribe would allow you to climb the social ladder.