In ancient Egypt, the head of
government was Pharaoh.
The ancient Egyptians said
"Pharaoh", not the pharaoh. That's because there was only
one pharaoh at a time, and Pharaoh owned everything. You did not own
your home or your jewelry or your food or anything else. Pharaoh owned
had an army, a police force, and a huge number of ministers and
government officials to help him rule the country. The most important
of these helpers was Pharaoh's right hand man, his Vizier.
Vizier received reports from every top official every day. Every day,
the Vizier gave Pharaoh a concise report on what was happening all
The Vizier also heard cases in the high
court. If you did not like the decision of the lower court, you could
come before the Vizier on a first come, first served basis. It was not
smart to come before the Vizier unless your case was serious, and you
had evidence to show that the lower court's decision was in error. The Vizier's decision was final.
You could end up in more trouble than you were in already by demanding
to have your case heard in the high court. But the Vizier did try to
12 Great Dynasties