In ancient Egypt, the head of government was Pharaoh.
The ancient Egyptians said "Pharaoh", not the pharaoh. That's because there was only one pharaoh at a time, and Pharaoh owned everything. You did not own your home or your jewelry or your food or anything else. It was all Pharaoh's.
Each pharaoh had an army, a police force, and a huge number of ministers and government officials to help him rule the country. The most important of these helpers was Pharaoh's right hand man, his Vizier.