The Nile River is the longest river in Africa. It's also the longest river in the world! It was a most important river to the ancient Egyptian people.
The Nile flows into the Mediterranean Sea. It flows through Egypt, bringing all kinds of benefits like water to irrigate crops and a river for sailing ships from ancient Egyptian port to port. The river was full of fish and the river banks were full of good things to eat.
Each year, water would melt on the mountain tops located to the south of Egypt. The water would rush down the mountain and into the Nile River. As the flood waters receded, they left behind rich soil. Crops grew very well in this rich soil.
The Nilometer was a device for measuring the height of the Nile River. This device was actually a series of steps. Ancient Egyptian scientists could tell how high the Nile was by how many steps it covered. The Nilometer gave the Egyptians a warning system for floods.
Today, the Nile no longer floods because of the construction of the Aswan Dam.